I was reading this paper on EA's internal STL implementation, and it got me thinking -- where is the game architecture research?
There is a large amount of academic research poured into real-time graphics, experimental gameplay and entertainment, AI, and even MMO server design. But I find there are a number of architecture issues unique to games that are lacking in any sort of research. I've done searches and not come up with a whole lot, maybe I'm just not using the correct keywords.
Memory is not a solved problem for game consoles
Most if not all garbage collection research is focused on desktop or server based memory usage patterns. They assume virtual memory paging. Many gc algorithms are impractical for a fixed memory environment where utilization needs to be close to 100%. While some game engines use garbage collection, the algorithms are primitive compared to the state of the art generational collectors found in desktop environments, and the waste of memory resources is often 10-20% of total memory. Games generally can not afford large mark or sweep phases as they must execute at a smooth frame rate. Fragmentation can still be an issue in a fixed memory environment, although in this case many allocator strategies exist to combat this.
Multicore architectures for games
While this is still an active area of research for desktop and server applications, too, I've found exactly one paper that attempts some research in this area for game architectures. This is a particularly fruitful area for research since there are many competing ideas out there (message passing! software transactional memory! functional programming!), but very few researchers testing any of them in the context of building a game. It is difficult enough to make a game by itself, let alone test multiple techniques for exploiting multiple cores. I find this somewhat interesting because aside from servers and scientific processing, games are pushing the state of the art in multicore programming more than anything else.
This is something the EA STL paper brings up -- traditional automated testing techniques break down pretty quickly beyond unit testing lower level libraries. So much of the end result of game code is subjective and emergent that determining how to test even basic functionality automatically is a huge unsolved problem. This results in a large amount of manpower being used for game testing, particularly in the area of regression testing.
This research is being done as a part of production by many companies inside the industry. But it is always going to be the case that in a production environment, you just aren't going to have the time and resources to, say, try three different approaches to multicore architecture and compare them. Generally you make an educated guess and hope for the best. Additionally, because much of this research is done as part of product development, rarely are the results published, which means we're all out there doing the same work over and over.
Saturday, October 17, 2009
Sunday, October 4, 2009
The last entry got me thinking about one area of game programming that has gotten unequivocally better over the last ten or fifteen years: graphics programming. From the advent of the GPU to programmable pipelines to the debugging and profiling tools available, things are for the most part way easier today than they were even five years ago.
I am not a graphics programmer. I'm a generalist who often finds himself programming graphics. So there are certainly gaps in the last ten or fifteen years where I wasn't really writing anything significant in graphics. There's a large gap between fixed-function gpus and when HLSL was introduced -- I don't think I've ever done assembly-level pixel shaders, for example.
While I do remember doing a lot of OpenGL in the early days of fixed-function, I didn't do much multipass rendering on fixed function hardware, where companies like Id essentially faked a programmable pixel pipeline with texture and blend ops. Frankly, I thought during that era it was more about fighting the hardware than interesting techniques -- the amount of bs you had to put up with made the area unattractive to me at the time.
Languages like HLSL and Cg piqued my interest in graphics again, and when you think about it, are a pretty impressive feat. They allow a programmer to harness massively parallel hardware without having to think about the parallelism much at all, and the last few years have been more about interesting algorithms and more efficient operations than about fighting hardware capabilities. Sure, you still run up against the remaining fixed function parts of the pipeline (namely, blending and texture filtering), but those can be worked around.
The tools have improved year over year. On the PC, things like PerfHUD have slowly gotten better, with more tools like it being made all the time. The gold standard still remains PIX on the 360 -- so much so that many programmers I know will do an implementation of a new graphics technique first on the 360 just because it is so easy to debug when things go wrong.
So let me just praise the GPU engineers, tools makers, and language and API designers who have done such a good job of taking a hard problem and making it constantly easier to deal with. I think it is rare to get such productivity gains for programmers in any area, and we shouldn't take for granted when it happens.
This is also why the dawn of fully programmable graphics hardware makes me nervous. Nvidia recently announced the Fermi architecture, which will allow the use of C++ on the GPU. Nvidia, AMD/ATI, and Intel are all converging on GPU architectures that allow more and more general computing, but is C++ really the answer here?
HLSL and its ilk make concurrent programming easy. The same can not be said for C++. While an architecture where the underlying threading architecture of a GPU is more open certainly will allow for a wider array of approaches, what is the cost? Are we blinded so much by the possibilities that we forget that the DirectX/OpenGL model is one of the few successes of hiding concurrency for programmers?
I have not really done much with CUDA or compute shaders, so perhaps I am being hasty in judgement. But when I see Intel or Nvidia touting that you can use C++ on their GPUs, I get a little worried. I am not sure that this will make things better, and in fact, may make things very much worse.
Am I just paranoid?
Saturday, October 3, 2009
I started reading Coders At Work, and wow, it's rare that you run across a book about programming that's a page-turner, but this is it. I'm not very far into it, but a quote from Brad Fitzpatrick (LiveJournal, memcached, PerlBal) caught my attention. The context is he is bemoaning how it seems like computers are worse than they were ten years ago, that they feel slower even though under the hood they are faster, etc. Then this question and answer comes up:
Seibel: So maybe things are not as fast as they ought to be given the speed of computers. But ten years ago there was no way to do what people,as users, can do today with Google.
Fitzpatrick: Yeah. So some people are writing efficient code and making use of it. I don't play any games, but occasionally I'll see someone playing something and I'm like, "Holy shit, that's possible?" It just blows me away. Obviously, some people are doing it right.
We are? The funny thing is, I'm not sure a lot of game programmers would feel that we are doing things right. We work with imperfect middleware and engines, with hacks upon hacks piled upon them, all until the game we are working on is no longer broken and actually fun to play. We have code in our games we would describe as "shit" or "crap" or "I can't believe we shipped with that." When I was just starting out, I thought maybe it was just the games I was working on that had this problem, but any time you talk to anyone at other companies, it is the same story -- from the most successful games to the smallest ones, we can all list a huge litany of problems in the code bases in which we work or have written.
It's interesting reading this book because at least the first two programmers I've read are in totally different worlds than game development. Not better or worse, just different. The problems and constraints they have are somewhat alien to me.
I've often heard game developers say things like "game development is five to ten years behind the state of the art in 'straight' programming", referring to process or my least favorite term, "software engineering." I may have even said it myself.
The game industry often does a lot of navel gazing (like this entry!). We are constantly comparing ourselves to movies, theme parks, or how the rest of programmers work. Maybe we've got it all wrong. Maybe all along we've been figuring out how programming for games needs to work. If the world that Brad Fitzpatrick lives in feels alien to me and vice versa, then why would we ever think that the processes or techniques that work in one are automatically going to work for the other?
Food for thought.